In 2023, the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) market in China showed signs of a moderate recovery following the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This article delves into the market's performance, explores changes in consumer behavior, and forecasts future development trends.
Market Overview: Gradual Recovery in China's FMCG Market
In the first three quarters of 2023, China's FMCG market exhibited a growth of 1%, indicating a gradual recovery from the pandemic's impact. Despite a 0.9% year-over-year decline in sales in the third quarter, the market maintained stable overall growth. Notably, the increase in sales was primarily driven by volume growth, while the average selling price slightly decreased by 0.2% compared to the previous year, demonstrating price stability.
Key Trends and Developments in the 2023 Q1-Q3 China FMCG Market:
Industry Flexibility and Adaptability: Post-pandemic policy adjustments and changing consumer trends have highlighted the resilience and adaptability of China's FMCG industry. Amid gradual economic stabilization and ongoing geopolitical issues, brands have adopted more proactive strategies, shifting from a cautious approach to active market participation.
Shift in Consumer Focus: Despite a slowdown in the FMCG industry's growth rate, this does not imply a decline in overall consumer spending. In fact, consumers may have redirected some expenses to the service sector, such as dining out and travel. Data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China shows a significant 18.9% year-over-year increase in national service industry retail sales in the first three quarters of 2023, reflecting this shift in consumer focus.
Signs of Market Recovery: The Chinese FMCG market showed signs of recovery in the first half of 2023, with a 1.8% year-over-year increase in sales in both the first and second quarters, indicating a gradual rebound from the pandemic's effects.
Setback in the Third Quarter: Despite a strong start to the year, sales in the third quarter declined by 0.9% year-over-year, mainly due to the exceptionally strong performance in the third quarter of 2022, resulting in a high base. This decline may represent a normal market adjustment rather than a long-term trend.
Revival of Consumer Demand: Notably, consumer demand warmed up in the first four weeks following the end of the third quarter of 2023, especially during the holiday period, leading to a 5.3% growth in the FMCG market. This indicates that despite challenges, the overall trend of market recovery has not been interrupted.
Consumer Behavior: Post-Pandemic Changes and Adaptation
Post-pandemic, consumer behavior has undergone significant changes. Data shows that in the first three quarters of 2023, national service industry retail sales (including transportation, dining, accommodation, etc.) surged by 18.9% year-over-year, reflecting a shift in consumer spending to these areas. Additionally, the home care category saw a significant 8.8% increase in sales, with a 7.1% increase in volume and a 1.5% increase in average selling price indicating a heightened focus on health and quality of life.
The pandemic has had a profound impact on consumer behavior, which was evident in the market performance of 2023. Specifically:
Shift in Consumer Spending Focus: As the impact of the pandemic diminished, consumers began shifting their spending from traditional fast-moving consumer goods to the service industry, such as dining and travel. This shift is reflected in the significant growth of the national service industry's retail sales, which surged by 18.9% year-over-year.
Increased Health Consciousness: There was a notable increase in consumer attention to health and hygiene. This was not only evident in the increased demand for home care products but also reflected in personal care and food choices. For instance, there was a rise in demand for organic, natural, or functional foods.
Price Sensitivity: Despite higher demands for quality, consumers have become more price-conscious in their purchasing decisions. This has led to a slight decrease in the average selling price of some categories, such as personal care products.
Channel Analysis: Rise of Small Formats and E-commerce
In the first three quarters of 2023, small-format stores such as supermarkets and grocery stores gained popularity, with a continuous increase in customer traffic. Meanwhile, the e-commerce channel grew by 4% compared to the overall FMCG market, outperforming it.
The discount store channel has seen a robust expansion trend, while social media platforms such as Kuaishou and Douyin (TikTok) have increased their market share in the e-commerce sector by 6 percentage points year-over-year.
Rise of Small Formats: Supermarkets and small grocery stores were favored by consumers in the first three quarters of 2023, reflecting a preference for convenience and proximity in shopping.
Growth of E-commerce Channel: The e-commerce channel showed strong market performance with a 4% year-over-year growth in the first three quarters of 2023. This growth was primarily due to consumer recognition of the convenience of online shopping and the diverse product offerings and promotional activities of e-commerce platforms.
Impact of Social Media Platforms: Platforms like Kuaishou and Douyin (TikTok) have increasingly influenced the e-commerce domain. These platforms attract a large number of consumers through live streaming and short videos, contributing to the growth of e-commerce market share.
Future Outlook: Opportunities and Challenges for Brands and Retailers
As the market gradually recovers, brands and retailers face a critical moment to reshape strategies and strengthen market adaptability. They need to focus on brand building, plan for multi-channel distribution, and cater to changing consumer trends. Retailers, in particular, should enhance customer loyalty and experience, balance online and offline products, and optimize with data and technology.
The moderate recovery of China's FMCG market in 2023 not only brings new opportunities but also indicates potential growth in the future. Brands and retailers must adapt flexibly to market changes to maintain competitiveness and market share.
As we observe these dynamic shifts and trends in the FMCG market, it's clear that staying informed and adaptable is key to thriving in this evolving landscape. If you're looking to delve deeper into these insights or seeking strategic advice on navigating these changes, we're here to help. Contact us for expert guidance and tailored solutions that can help your business stay ahead in the fast-paced world of consumer goods.